USP11 is a Negative Regulator to {gamma}H2AX Ubiquitylation by RNF8/RNF168 [Signal Transduction]

October 27th, 2015 by Yu, M., Liu, K., Mao, Z., Luo, J., Gu, W., Zhao, W.

Ubiquitin modification at double strand breaks (DSB) sites is an essential regulator of signaling and repair. γH2AX extends from DSB sites and provides a platform for subsequent recruitment and amplification of DNA repair proteins and signaling factors. Here, we found that RNF8/RNF168 ubiquitylate γH2AX. We identified that USP11 is a unique deubiquitylation enzyme (DUB) for γH2AX. USP11 deubiquitylates γH2AX both in vivo and in vitro; but not the canonical (ub)-K119-H2A and (ub)-K120-H2B in vitro. And USP11 ablation enhances the levels of γH2AX ubiquitylation. We also found that USP11 interacts with γH2AX both in vivo and in vitro. We found that 53BP1 and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins are mis-regulated to retain longer and stronger at DSB sites after knockdown of USP11. We further found that cells are hypersensitive to γ-irradiation after ablation of USP11. Together, our findings elucidates deeply and extensively the mechanism of RNF8/RNF168 and USP11 to maintain the proper status of ubiquitylation γH2AX to repair DSB.