Allosteric regulation of a protein acetyltransferase in Micromonospora aurantiaca by the amino acids cysteine and arginine [Enzymology]

August 14th, 2014 by Xu, J.-Y., You, D., Leng, P.-Q., Ye, B.-C.

ACT domains (amino acid-binding domains) are linked to a wide range of metabolic enzymes that are regulated by amino acid concentration. Seventy proteins with ACT-GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain organization were found in actinomycetales. In this study, we investigate the ACT-containing GNAT acetyltransferase, Micau_1670 (MaKat), from Micromonospora aurantiaca ATCC 27029. Arginine and cysteine were identified as ligands by monitoring the conformational changes that occur upon amino acids binding to the ACT domain in the MaKat protein using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. It was found that MaKat is an amino acid-regulated protein acetyltransferase, while arginine and cysteine stimulated the activity of MaKat with regard to acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Micau_0428). Our research reveals the biochemical characterization of a protein acetyltransferase that contains a fusion of a GNAT domain with an ACT domain and provides a novel signaling pathway for regulating cellular protein acetylation. These findings indicate that acetylation of proteins and acetyltransferase activity may be tightly linked to cellular concentrations of some amino acids in actinomycetales.