Base Excision Repair of Tandem Modifications in a Methylated CpG Dinucleotide [Enzymology]

April 18th, 2014 by Sassa, A., Cağlayan, M., Dyrkheeva, N. S., Beard, W. A., Wilson, S. H.

Cytosine methylation and demethylation in tracks of CpG dinucleotides is an epigenetic mechanism for control of gene expression. The initial step in the demethylation process can be deamination of 5-methylcytosine producing the TpG alteration and T:G mispair, and this step is followed by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) initiated base excision repair (BER). A further consideration is that guanine in the CpG dinucleotide may become oxidized to 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), and this could affect the demethylation process involving TDG-initiated BER. However, little is known about the enzymology of BER of tandemly altered CpG dinucleotides; e.g., Tp8-oxoG. Here, we investigated interactions between this altered dinucleotide and purified BER enzymes, the DNA glycosylases TDG and 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1, DNA polymerase β and DNA ligases. The overall TDG-initiated BER of the Tp8-oxoG dinucleotide is significantly reduced. Specifically, TDG and DNA ligase activities are reduced by a 3[prime]-flanking 8-oxoG. In contrast, OGG1-initiated BER pathway is blocked due to the 5[prime]-flanking T:G mispair; this reduces OGG1, AP endonuclease 1, and DNA polymerase β activities. Further, in TDG-initiated BER, TDG remains bound to its product AP site blocking OGG1 access to the adjacent 8-oxoG. These results reveal BER enzyme specificities enabling suppression of OGG1-initiated BER and coordination of TDG-initiated BER at this tandem alteration in the CpG dinucleotide.