Identification and characterization of CD300H, a new member of the human CD300 immunoreceptor family [Immunology]

July 28th, 2015 by Niizuma, K., Tahara-Hanaoka, S., Noguchi, E., Shibuya, A.

Recruitment of circulating monocytes and neutrophils to infection sites is essential for host defense against infections. Here, we identified a previously unannotated gene that encodes an immunoglobulin-like receptor, designated CD300H, and is located in the CD300 gene cluster. CD300H has a short cytoplasmic tail and associates with the signaling adaptor proteins, DAP12 and DAP10. CD300H is expressed on CD16+ monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells. Ligation of CD300H on CD16+ monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells with anti-CD300H monoclonal antibody induced the production of neutrophil chemoattractants. Interestingly, CD300H expression varied among healthy subjects, who could be classified into two groups according to positive and negative expression. Genomic sequence analysis revealed a single-nucleotide substitution [rs905709 (G>A)] at a splice donor site on intron 1 on either one or both alleles. The international HapMap project database has demonstrated that homozygosity for the A allele of SNP rs905709 (negative expression) is highly frequent in Han Chinese in Beijing, Japanese in Tokyo, and Europeans (A/A genotype frequencies 0.349, 0.167, and 0.138 respectively) but extremely rare in Sub-Saharan African populations. Together, these results suggest that CD300H may play an important role in innate immunity, at least in populations that carry the G/G or G/A genotype of CD300H.