Protein Hydroxylation Catalyzed by 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Oxygenases [Gene Regulation]

July 7th, 2015 by Markolovic, S., Wilkins, S. E., Schofield, C. J.

The post-translational hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues, as catalysed by 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases, was first identified in collagen biosynthesis. 2OG oxygenases also catalyse prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of the hypoxia inducible factors that play important roles in the adaptive response to hypoxia. Subsequently, they have been shown to catalyse N-demethylation (via hydroxylation) of Nϵ-methylated histone lysyl residues, and hydroxylation of multiple other residues. Recent work has identified roles for 2OG oxygenases in the modification of translation-associated proteins, which in some cases appears to be conserved from microorganisms through to humans. Here we give an overview of protein hydroxylation catalysed by 2OG oxygenases, focusing on recent discoveries.