Structural Determinants for the Interaction of Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 with Peptide Ligands [Signal Transduction]

November 27th, 2013 by He, H.-Q., Troksa, E. L., Caltabiano, G., Pardo, L., Ye, R. D.

Unlike formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), FPR2/ALX (FPR2) interacts with peptides of diverse sequences but has low affinity for the Escherichia coli-derived chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLF). Using computer modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated the structural requirements for FPR2 to interact with formyl peptides of different length and composition. In calcium flux assay, the N-formyl group of these peptides is necessary for activation of both FPR2 and FPR1 while the composition of the C-terminal amino acids appears more important for FPR2 than FPR1. FPR2 interacts better with pentapeptides (fMLFII, fMLFIK) than tetrapeptides (fMLFK, fMLFW) and tripeptide (fMLF), but only weakly with peptides carrying negative charges at the C-terminus (e.g. fMLFE). In contrast, FPR1 is less sensitive to negative charges at the C-terminus. A CXCR4-based homology model of FPR1 and FPR2 suggested that Asp2817.32 is crucial for the interaction of FPR2 with certain formyl peptides as its negative charge may be repulsive with the terminal COO- group of fMLF and negatively charged Glu in fMLFE. Asp2817.32 might also form a stable interaction with the positively charged Lys in fMLFK. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to remove the negative charge at position 281 in FPR2. The D2817.32G mutant showed improved affinity for fMLFE and fMLF, and reduced affinity for fMLFK compared with wild type FPR2. These results indicate that different structural determinants are used by FPR1 and FPR2 to interact with formyl peptides.