Two p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase Isoforms Are Involved in the Regulation of Mitotic and Meiotic Arrest in Artemia [Developmental Biology]

April 22nd, 2014 by Duan, R.-B., Zhang, L., Chen, D.-F., Yang, F., Yang, J.-S., Yang, W.-J.

There are multiple isoforms of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (Rsk), which regulate diverse cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, maturation, and motility. However, the relationship between the structures and functions of Rsk isoforms remains undetermined. Artemia is a useful model in which to study cell cycle arrest because these animals undergo prolonged diapauses, a state of obligate dormancy. A novel Rsk isoform was identified in Artemia, which was termed Ar-Rsk2. This isoform was compared to an Rsk isoform that we previously identified in Artemia, termed Ar-Rsk1. Ar-Rsk2 has an ERK-docking motif, whereas Ar-Rsk1 does not. Western blot analysis revealed that Ar-Rsk1 was activated by phosphorylation, which blocked meiosis in oocytes. Knockdown of Ar-Rsk1 reduced the level of phosphorylated cdc2 and thereby suppressed cytostatic factor activity. This indicates that Ar-Rsk1 regulates cytostatic factor in meiosis. Expression of Ar-Rsk2 was downregulated in Artemia cysts in which mitosis was arrested. Knockdown of Ar-Rsk2 resulted in decreased levels of cyclin D3 and phosphorylated histone H3, and the production of pseudo-diapause cysts. This indicates that Ar-Rsk2 regulates mitotic arrest. PLK and ERK RNAi showed that Ar-Rsk2, but not Ar-Rsk1, could be activated by PLK-ERK in Artemia. This is the first study to report that Rsk isoforms with and without an ERK-docking motif regulate mitosis and meiosis, respectively. This study provides insight into the relationship between the structures and functions of Rsk isoforms.