Vps4 Stimulatory Element (VSE) of the Cofactor Vta1 Contacts the ATPase Vps4 {alpha}7 and {alpha}9 to Stimulate ATP Hydrolysis [Enzymology]

August 27th, 2014 by Davies, B. A., Norgan, A. P., Payne, J. A., Schulz, M. E., Nichols, M. D., Tan, J. A., Xu, Z., Katzmann, D. J.

The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRTs) function in a variety of membrane remodeling processes including multivesicular body sorting, abscission during cytokinesis, budding of enveloped viruses, and repair of the plasma membrane. Vps4 ATPase activity modulates ESCRT function and is itself modulated by its co-factor Vta1 and its substrate ESCRT-III. The carboxyl-terminal Vta1/SBP-1/Lip5 (VSL) domain of Vta1 binds to the Vps4 β-domain to promote Vps4 oligomerization-dependent ATP hydrolysis. Additionally, the Vps4 Stimulatory Element (VSE) of Vta1 contributes to enhancing Vps4 oligomer ATP hydrolysis. The VSE is also required for Vta1-dependent stimulation of Vps4 by ESCRT-III subunits. However, the manner by which the Vta1 VSE contributes to Vps4 activation is unknown. Existing structural data was used to generate a model of the Vta1 VSE in complex with Vps4. This model implicated residues within the small AAA (ATPase Associated with various Activities) domain, specifically alpha helices 7 and 9, as relevant contact sites. Rational generation of Vps4 mutants defective for VSE-mediated stimulation, as well as intergenic compensatory mutations, support the validity of this model. These findings have uncovered the Vps4 surface responsible for coordinating ESCRT-III-stimulated Vta1 input during ESCRT function and identified a novel mechanism of Vps4 stimulation.